No excuse for sin, 1-5. No escape from judgment, 6-13. Gentiles cannot, 14-16; nor Jews, 17-29.
1 Therefore, you are inexcusable, O man, whoever you are who judge. For wherein you judge another, you condemn yourself, for you who judge do the same things. 2 But we are sure that the judgment of God is according to truth against those who commit such things. 3 And do you think this, O man, who judges those who do such things and do the same, that you shall escape the judgment of God? 4 Or do you despise the riches of his goodness, forbearance, and patience, not knowing that the goodness of God leads you to repentance? 5 But because of your hardness and impenitent heart, you treasure up for yourself wrath against the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God, 6 Who "will render to every man according to his deeds." 7 To those who, by patient continuance in well-doing, seek for glory, honor, and immortality, he will give eternal life, 8 But to those who are contentious and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, he will give indignation and wrath. 9 There will be tribulation and anguish upon every soul of man who does evil, of the Jew first and also of the Gentile, 10 But glory, honor, and peace to every man who works good, to the Jew first and also to the Gentile, 11 For there is no respect of persons with God.
12 For as many as have sinned without law shall also perish without law, and as many as have sinned in the law shall be judged by the law— 13 For the hearers of the law are not just before God, but the doers of the law shall be justified; 14 For when the Gentiles, who do not have the law, do by nature the things contained in the law, these not having the law are a law to themselves, 15 In that they show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing testimony and their thoughts between one another accusing, or else excusing one another— 16 On the day when God judges the secrets of men by Jesus Christ, according to my gospel.
17 But if you are named a Jew and rest in the law and make your boast of God, 18 And know his will and approve the things that are more excellent, being instructed out of the law, 19 And are confident that you yourself are a guide of the blind, a light of those who are in darkness, 20 An instructor of the foolish, a teacher of babies, who have the form of knowledge and of the truth in the law— 21 You therefore who teach another, do you not teach yourself? You who preach a man should not steal, do you steal? 22 You who say a man should not commit adultery, do you commit adultery? You who abhor idols, do you commit sacrilege? 23 You who make your boast of the law, through breaking the law, do you dishonor God? 24 For "the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you," as it is written.
25 For circumcision truly profits if you keep the law, but if you are a breaker of the law, your circumcision is made uncircumcision. 26 Therefore, if the uncircumcision keeps the righteousness of the law, shall his uncircumcision not be counted for circumcision? 27 And shall uncircumcision which is by nature, if it fulfills the law, not judge you who by the letter and circumcision transgress the law? 28 For he is not a Jew who is one outwardly, neither is that circumcision which is outward in the flesh. 29 But he is a Jew who is one inwardly, and circumcision is that of the heart, in the Spirit, and not in the letter, whose praise is not from men, but from God.
Matthew Henry Commentary - Romans, Chapter 2[➚]
[v.1] - Reference, Matthew 7:1-5; Romans 14:13.
[v.6] - Quoting Psalm 62:12 (LXX). See also, Proverbs 24:12.
[v.11] - Reference, Deuteronomy 10:17; 2nd Chronicles 19:7; Job 34:19; Matthew 22:16; Luke 20:21; Acts 10:34; Galatians 2:6; Ephesians 6:9; Colossians 3:25; 1st Peter 1:17.
[v.24] - Most likely quoting Ezekiel 36:20. From John Calvin's Commentary: "I think this quotation is taken from Ezekiel 36:20, rather than from Isaiah 52:5; for in Isaiah there are no reproofs given to the people, but that chapter in Ezekiel is full of reproofs."
[v.29] - "circumcision is that of the heart" - Reference, Deuteronomy 10:16, 30:6; Jeremiah 4:4; Colossians 2:11.