Paul's Letter to the Romans

Chapter 11

God has not cast off all Israel, 1-6. Some were elected, though the rest were hardened, 7-15. There is hope of their conversion, 16, 17. The Gentiles may not boast over them, 18-25; for there is a promise of their salvation, 26-32. God's judgments are unsearchable, 33-36.

1 I say then, has God cast away his people? By no means. For I also am an Israelite, of the offspring of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. 2 "God has not cast away his people" which he foreknew. Do you not know what the Scripture says of Elijah, how he makes intercession to God against Israel? 3 "Lord, they have killed your prophets and dug down your altars. I am left alone. And they seek my life." 4 But what is the answer from God to him? "I have reserved for myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal." 5 Even so then at this present time also there is a remnant according to the election of grace. 6 And if it is by grace, then it is no longer of works; otherwise, grace is no longer grace. But if it is of works, then it is no longer grace; otherwise, work is no longer work.

7 What then? Israel has not obtained that which he seeks for, but the elect have obtained it, and the rest were blinded. 8 According as it is written,

"God has given them the spirit of slumber,"/
"eyes so that they should not see/
and ears so that they should not hear to this day.

9 And David says,

"Let their table be made a snare, a trap,/
a stumbling-block, and a recompense to them.

10 Let their eyes be darkened so that they may not see,/
and bow down their back always.

11 I say then, have they stumbled so that they should fall? By no means. But rather through their fall salvation has come to the Gentiles, to provoke them to jealousy. 12 Now if their fall is the riches of the world and their diminishing is the riches of the Gentiles, how much more will their fullness be? 13 For I speak to you Gentiles. Since I am the apostle of the Gentiles, I magnify my office, 14 If by any means I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh, and may save some of them. 15 For if their rejection is the reconciling of the world, what shall their receiving be, but life from the dead? 16 For if the first fruit is holy, the lump is also holy, and if the root is holy, so are the branches.

17 And if some of the branches are broken off, and you, being a wild olive-tree, are implanted among them, and with them partake of the root and fatness of the olive-tree, 18 Do not boast against the branches. But if you boast, [remember]: you do not bear the root, but the root bears you. 19 You will say then, "The branches were broken off so that I might be grafted in." 20 Right. Because of unbelief they were broken off, and you stand by faith. Do not be high-minded, but fear. 21 For if God did not spare the natural branches, take heed lest he also not spare you. 22 Behold therefore the goodness and severity of God: on those who fell, severity, but toward you, goodness, if you continue in his goodness. Otherwise, you also shall be cut off. 23 And they also, if they do not still abide in unbelief, shall be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again. 24 For if you were cut out of the olive-tree which is wild by nature and were grafted in contrary to nature into a good olive-tree, how much more shall these, which are the natural branches, be grafted into their own olive-tree?

25 For I do not wish, brothers, that you should be ignorant of this mystery (lest you should be wise in your own conceits), that blindness in part has happened to Israel until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in. 26 And so all Israel shall be saved, as it is written,

"The Deliverer will come out of Zion,/
and he will turn away ungodliness from Jacob.

27 And this is my covenant to them,"/
"when I take away their sins."

28 As concerning the gospel, they are enemies for your sake, but as concerning the election, they are beloved for the fathers' sake. 29 For the gifts and calling of God are without repentance. 30 For as you in times past have not believed God, but have now obtained mercy through their unbelief, 31 Even so these have also now not believed so that through your mercy they also may obtain mercy. 32 For God has enclosed them all in unbelief so that he might have mercy upon all.

33 O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable his judgments are and his ways past finding out!

34 For "who has known the mind of the Lord?/
Or who has been his counselor?

35 Or "who has first given to him,/
and it shall be recompensed to him again?

36 For from him, by him, and to him are all things, to whom be glory forever. Amen.


Matthew Henry Commentary - Romans, Chapter 11[➚]


[v.2] - Quoting Psalm 94:14 (LXX).

[v.3] - Quoting 1st Kings 19:10.

[v.4] - Quoting 1st Kings 19:18.

[v.8] - Quoting Deuteronomy 29:4 and Isaiah 29:10. See also, Isaiah 6:9.

[v.9-10] - Quoting Psalm 69:22-23 (LXX—paraphrased).

[v.13] - Reference, Acts 22:21, 26:17-18; Romans 15:16; 2nd Timothy 1:11.

[v.18] - Text in square brackets added for implied meaning.

[v.26-27] - Quoting Isaiah 59:20-21 (LXX—paraphrased) and Jeremiah 31:34. From John Calvin's Commentary: "Though Paul, by the last prophecy of Isaiah, briefly touched on the office of the Messiah, in order to remind the Jews what was to be expected especially from him, he further adds these few words from Jeremiah, expressly for the same purpose; for what is added is not found in the former passage."

[v.34] - Quoting Isaiah 40:13 (LXX).

[v.35] - Quoting Job 41:11.