Christ avouches his authority by a question of John's baptism, 1-8. The parable of the vineyard, 9-18. Of giving tribute to Caesar, 19-26. He convinces the Sadducees, who denied the resurrection, 27-40. How Christ is the Son of David, 41-44. He warns his disciples to beware of the scribes, 45-47.
1 And it came to pass, that on one of those days, as he was teaching the people in the temple and preaching the gospel, the chief priests and the scribes came upon him, with the elders, 2 And spoke to him, saying, "Tell us, by what authority do you do these things? Or who is he who gave you this authority?" 3 And he answered and said to them, "I will also ask you one thing. Answer me. 4 The baptism of John, was it from heaven, or from men?" 5 And they reasoned with themselves, saying, "If we say, 'From heaven,' he will say, 'Why then did you not believe him?' 6 But if we say, 'From men,' all the people will stone us, for they are persuaded that John was a prophet." 7 And they answered that they could not tell where it was from. 8 And Jesus said to them, "Neither do I tell you by what authority I do these things."
9 Then he began to speak to the people this parable: "A certain man planted a vineyard, leased it to farmers, and went into a far country for a long time. 10 And at the season he sent a servant to the farmers so that they should give him some of the fruit of the vineyard. But the farmers beat him and sent him away empty. 11 And again he sent another servant, and they beat him also, treated him shamefully, and sent him away empty. 12 And again he sent the third, and they wounded him also and cast him out. 13 Then the lord of the vineyard said, 'What shall I do? I will send my beloved son. It may be when they see him they will reverence him.' 14 But when the farmers saw him, they reasoned among themselves, saying, 'This is the heir. Come, let us kill him so that the inheritance may be ours.' 15 So they cast him out of the vineyard and killed him. What therefore will the lord of the vineyard do to them? 16 He will come and destroy these farmers, and will give the vineyard to others." And when they heard it, they said, "May that never be."
17 And he beheld them, and said, "What is this then that is written: 'The stone which the builders rejected, the same has become the head of the corner'?
18 Whoever falls upon that stone shall be broken, but on whomever it falls, it will grind him to powder."
19 And the chief priests and the scribes the same hour sought to lay hands on him, and they feared the people, for they perceived that he had spoken this parable against them. 20 And they watched him and sent forth spies who should feign themselves to be just men so that they might take hold of his words, and that they might deliver him to the power and authority of the governor. 21 And they asked him, saying, "Master, we know that you say and teach rightly, neither do you accept the person of any, but teach the way of God truly. 22 Is it lawful for us to give tribute to Caesar, or not?" 23 But he perceived their craftiness and said to them, "Why do you test me? 24 Show me a denarius. Whose image and superscription does it have?" They answered and said, "Caesar's." 25 And he said to them, "Render therefore to Caesar the things which are Caesar's, and to God the things which are God's." 26 And they could not take hold of his words before the people. And they marveled at his answer and held their peace.
27 Then some of the Sadducees, who deny that there is any resurrection, came to him and they asked him, 28 Saying, "Master, Moses wrote to us that 'if any man's brother should die, having a wife, and he should die without children, that his brother should take his wife, and raise up seed for his brother.' 29 There were therefore seven brothers: the first took a wife and died without children, 30 the second took her for a wife and he died childless, 31 Then the third took her, and in like manner the seven all died and they left no children. 32 Last of all the woman also died. 33 Therefore, in the resurrection, whose wife of them is she? For seven had her for a wife."
34 And Jesus, answering, said to them, "The children of this world marry and are given in marriage, 35 But those who are accounted worthy to obtain that world and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage, 36 Neither can they die anymore, because they are equal to the angels and are the children of God, being the children of the resurrection. 37 But that the dead are raised, even Moses showed it at the bush when he calls the Lord 'the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.' 38 For he is not a God of the dead, but of the living, for all live to him." 39 Then some of the scribes, answering, said, "Master, you have well said." 40 And after that, they dared not ask him any question at all.
41 And he said to them, "How do they say that Christ is David's son? 42 And David himself says in the book of Psalms, 'The LORD said to my Lord, "Sit on my right hand,
43 Until I make your enemies your footstool for your feet."' 44 David therefore calls him Lord. How is he then his son?"
45 Then in the audience of all the people, he said to his disciples, 46 "Beware of the scribes, who desire to walk in long robes, love greetings in the markets, the highest seats in the synagogues, and the chief rooms at feasts, 47 Who devour widows' houses, and for a show make long prayers. The same shall receive greater condemnation."
Matthew Henry Commentary - Luke, Chapter 20[➚]
[v.1-8] - Gospel Link: Matthew 21:23-27; Mark 11:27-33.
[v.9-16] - Gospel Link: Matthew 21:33-41; Mark 12:1-9.
[v.9] - This parable is taken from Isaiah 5:1-7.
[v.17a] - Quoting Psalm 118:22 (LXX).
[v.17b] - Gospel Link: Matthew 21:42; Mark 12:10-11.
[v.18] - Gospel Link: Matthew 21:44.
[v.20-26] - Gospel Link: Matthew 22:15-22; Mark 12:13-17.
[v.21] - "neither do you accept the person of any" - Reference, Deuteronomy 10:17; 2nd Chronicles 19:7; Job 34:19; Matthew 22:16; Acts 10:34; Romans 2:11; Galatians 2:6; Ephesians 6:9; Colossians 3:25; 1st Peter 1:17.
[v.27-39] - Gospel Link: Matthew 22:23-33; Mark 12:18-27.
[v.28] - Quoting Deuteronomy 25:5.
[v.37] - Quoting Exodus 3:6.
[v.40] - Gospel Link: Matthew 22:46.
[v.41-44] - Gospel Link: Matthew 22:41-45; Mark 12:35-37.
[v.42-43] - Quoting Psalm 110:1 (LXX).
[v.46] - Gospel Link: Matthew 23:5-7; Mark 12:38-39.
[v.47] - Gospel Link: Matthew 23:14; Mark 12:40.