Christ is the door and the good shepherd, 1-18. Various opinions of him, 19-22. He proves by his works that he is Christ the Son of God, 23-30; escapes the Jews, 31-38; and goes again beyond the Jordan where many believe in him, 39-42.
1 "Truly, truly, I say to you, he who does not enter by the door into the sheep-fold, but climbs up some other way, the same is a thief and a robber. 2 But he who enters by the door is the shepherd of the sheep. 3 To him the gatekeeper opens, and the sheep hear his voice. And he calls his own sheep by name and leads them out. 4 And when he puts forth his own sheep, he goes before them, and the sheep follow him, for they know his voice. 5 And a stranger they will not follow, but will flee from him, for they do not know the voice of strangers." 6 Jesus spoke this parable to them, but they did not understand what things those were which he spoke to them.
7 Then Jesus said to them again, "Truly, truly, I say to you, I am the door of the sheep. 8 All who ever came before me are thieves and robbers, but the sheep did not hear them. 9 I am the door. If any man enters through me, he shall be saved and shall go in and out and find pasture. 10 The thief does not come, but to steal, to kill, and to destroy. I have come so that they may have life and have it more abundantly.
11 "I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd gives his life for the sheep. 12 But he who is a hireling and not the shepherd, who does not own the sheep, sees the wolf coming and leaves the sheep and flees, and the wolf catches them and scatters the sheep. 13 The hireling flees because he is a hireling and does not care for the sheep. 14 I am the good shepherd. I know my own and my own know me, 15 Even as the Father knows me and I know the Father. And I lay down my life for the sheep. 16 And I have other sheep which are not of this fold. I must bring them also, and they shall hear my voice. And there shall be one fold and one shepherd. 17 Therefore, my Father loves me because I lay down my life so that I may take it back. 18 No man takes it from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it down and I have power to take it back. This commandment I have received from my Father."
19 There was a division therefore again among the Jews for these sayings. 20 And many of them said, "He has a demon and is insane. Why do you hear him?" 21 Others said, "These are not the words of him who has a demon. Can a demon open the eyes of the blind?"
22 And it was the feast of the dedication in Jerusalem, and it was winter. 23 And Jesus walked in the temple in Solomon's porch. 24 Then the Jews came around him and said to him, "How long do you make us to doubt? If you are the Christ, tell us plainly." 25 Jesus answered them, "I told you and you did not believe. The works that I did in my Father's name, they testify concerning me. 26 But you do not believe because you are not of my sheep, as I said to you. 27 My sheep hear my voice, and I know them. They follow me, 28 And I give eternal life to them. They shall never perish, and no one shall pluck them out of my hand. 29 My Father, who gave them to me, is greater than all, and no one is able to pluck them out of my Father's hand. 30 I and my Father are one."
31 Then the Jews took up stones again to stone him. 32 Jesus answered them, "I have shown you many good works from my Father. For which of those works do you stone me?" 33 The Jews answered him, saying, "For a good work we do not stone you, but for blasphemy, because you, being a man, make yourself God." 34 Jesus answered them, "Is it not written in your law, 'I said, "You are gods"'? 35 If he called them gods to whom the word of God came, and the Scripture cannot be broken, 36 Do you say of him whom the Father has sanctified and sent into the world, 'You blaspheme,' because I said, 'I am the Son of God'? 37 If I do not do the works of my Father, do not believe me. 38 But if I do, though you do not believe me, believe the works so that you may know and believe that the Father is in me and I in him." 39 Therefore, they sought again to take him, but he escaped from their hand.
40 And he went again beyond the Jordan into the place where John at first baptized and he stayed there. 41 And many resorted to him, and said, "John performed no miracle, but all things that John spoke of this man were true." 42 And many believed in him there.
Matthew Henry Commentary - John, Chapter 10[➚]
[v.10] - "The thief does not come, but to steal, to kill, and to destroy" - Reference, 1st Peter 5:8.
[v.11] - "I am the good shepherd" - A great description of a good shepherd can be found in Ezekiel, ch. 34.
[v.14] - "I know my own" - Christ knows his own sheep.
[v.27-28] - The Pulpit Commentary gives a very good explanation on how these two verses are arranged: "The three couplets display the climacteric character of the wondrous rhythm and interchange of emotion between the Divine Shepherd and the sheep."
[v.28] - Reference, John 6:40, 17:2.
[v.34] - Quoting Psalm 82:6 (LXX).