The sacraments of the Jews are types of ours, 1-6; and their punishments, 7-10, examples for us, 11-13. We must flee from idolatry, 14-20. We must not make the Lord's table the table of devils, 21-23; and in things indifferent we must have regard for our brothers, 24-33.
1 Moreover, brothers, I do not wish that you should be ignorant, that all our fathers were under the cloud and all passed through the sea, 2 And were all baptized to Moses in the cloud and in the sea, 3 And all ate the same spiritual food, 4 And all drank the same spiritual drink (for they drank of that spiritual Rock which followed them, and that Rock was Christ). 5 But with many of them God was not well pleased, for they were overthrown in the wilderness.
6 Now these things were our examples so that we should not lust after evil things as they also lusted, 7 Neither be idolaters as some of them were, as it is written, "The people sat down to eat and drink and rose up to play." 8 Neither let us commit lewdness as some of them committed, and twenty-three thousand fell in one day. 9 Let us not test Christ as some of them also tested and were destroyed by serpents. 10 Let us not murmur as some of them also murmured and were destroyed by the destroyer. 11 Now all these things happened to them for examples. And they are written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the ages have come. 12 Therefore, let him who thinks he stands take heed, lest he fall. 13 There has no temptation taken you but such as is common to man. But God is faithful, who will not allow you to be tempted above what you are able, but will with the temptation also make a way to escape so that you may be able to bear it.
14 Therefore, my dearly beloved, flee from idolatry. 15 I speak as to wise men. Judge what I say. 16 The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ? 17 For we, being many, are one bread and one body, for we are all partakers of that one bread. 18 Behold Israel after the flesh: are those who eat of the sacrifices not partakers of the altar? 19 What then do I say? That the idol is anything, or that which is offered in sacrifice to idols is anything? 20 But I say, that the things which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to demons and not to God, and I do not wish that you should have fellowship with demons. 21 You cannot drink the cup of the Lord and the cup of demons. You cannot be partakers of the Lord's table and of the table of demons. 22 Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? Are we stronger than he is?
23 "All things are lawful for me," but all things are not expedient. "All things are lawful for me," but all things do not edify. 24 Let no man seek his own, but every man another's wealth. 25 Whatever is sold in the provision market, eat, asking no question for conscience' sake. 26 For "the earth is the Lord's, and its fullness." 27 If any of those who do not believe invites you to a feast and you are disposed to go, whatever is set before you, eat, asking no question on account of conscience. 28 But if any man says to you, "This is offered in sacrifice to idols," do not eat for his sake who showed it and for the sake of conscience. For "the earth is the Lord's, and its fullness." 29 Conscience, I say, not your own, but of the other. For why is my liberty judged by another man's conscience? 30 For if I by grace am a partaker, why am I evil spoken of for that for which I give thanks?
31 Whether therefore you eat or drink, or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God. 32 Give no offense, neither to the Jews, to the Gentiles, nor to the church of God, 33 Even as I please all men in all things, not seeking my own profit, but the profit of many, so that they may be saved.
Matthew Henry Commentary - 1st Corinthians, Chapter 10[➚]
[v.1a] - "under the cloud" - Reference, Exodus 13:21.
[v.1b] - "all passed through the sea" - Reference, Exodus 14:22, 29.
[v.3] - Reference, Exodus 16:4, 15, 35. See also, Deuteronomy 8:3.
[v.4] - Reference, Exodus 17:6. See also, Psalm 78:15, 105:41.
[v.5] - Reference, Numbers 14:20-35. See also, Numbers 26:65; Deuteronomy 1:34-40, 2:14-15.
[v.7] - Quoting Exodus 32:6 (LXX).
[v.26] - Quoting Psalm 24:1 (LXX). See also, Psalm 50:12.
[v.28] - Quoting Psalm 24:1 (LXX). See also, Psalm 50:12.