Nathan, first approving the purpose of David to build God a house, 1-3, afterward, by the word of God, forbids him, 4-11. God promises him benefits and blessings in his seed, 12-17. David's prayer and thanksgiving, 18-29.
1 And it came to pass, when the king sat in his house, and the LORD had given him rest around from all his enemies, 2 That the king said to Nathan the prophet, "See now, I dwell in a house of cedar, but the ark of God dwells within curtains." 3 And Nathan said to the king, "Go, do all that is in your heart, for the LORD is with you."
4 And it came to pass that night, that the word of the LORD came to Nathan, saying, 5 "Go and tell my servant David, 'Thus says the LORD: "Will you build a house for me to dwell in? 6 Whereas I have not dwelt in any house since the time that I brought the children of Israel out of Egypt, even to this day, but have walked in a tent and in a tabernacle. 7 In all the places in which I have walked with all the children of Israel, have I spoken a word with any of the tribes of Israel whom I commanded to feed my people Israel, saying, 'Why do you not build me a house of cedar?'"'
8 "Now therefore, thus you shall say to my servant David: 'Thus says the LORD of hosts: "I took you from the sheep-fold, from following the sheep, to be ruler over my people, over Israel. 9 And I was with you wherever you went and have cut off all your enemies out of your sight and made you a great name, like the name of the great men who are in the earth. 10 Moreover, I will appoint a place for my people Israel and will plant them so that they may dwell in a place of their own and move no more, neither shall the children of wickedness afflict them anymore, as formerly, 11 Even since the time that I commanded judges to be over my people Israel and have caused you to rest from all your enemies. Also, the LORD tells you that he will make you a house. 12 And when your days are fulfilled and you sleep with your fathers, I will set up your seed after you, which shall proceed from your body, and I will establish his kingdom. 13 He shall build a house for my name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. 14 I will be his father, and he shall be my son. If he commits iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men and with the stripes of the children of men, 15 But my mercy shall not depart from him, as I took it from Saul, whom I put away before you. 16 And your house and your kingdom shall be established forever before you. Your throne shall be established forever."'" 17 According to all these words and according to all this vision, so Nathan spoke to David.
18 Then king David went in and sat before the LORD and said, "Who am I, O Lord GOD? And what is my house that you have brought me thus far? 19 And this was yet a small thing in your sight, O Lord GOD, but you have spoken also of your servant's house for a great while to come. And is this the manner of man, O Lord GOD? 20 And what can David say more to you? For you, Lord GOD, know your servant. 21 For your word's sake and according to your own heart you have done all these great things to make your servant know them. 22 Therefore, you are great, O LORD God. For there is no one like you, neither is there any God besides you, according to all that we have heard with our ears. 23 And what one nation in the earth is like your people, even like Israel, whom God went to redeem for a people to himself, to make a name for himself, and to do for you great and awesome things, driving out nations and their gods before your people, which you redeemed for yourself from Egypt? 24 For you have confirmed to yourself your people Israel to be a people to you forever. And you, LORD, have become their God. 25 And now, O LORD God, the word that you have spoken concerning your servant and concerning his house, establish it forever and do as you have said. 26 And let your name be magnified forever, saying, 'The LORD of hosts is the God over Israel.' And let the house of your servant David be established before you. 27 For you, O LORD of hosts, God of Israel, have revealed to your servant, saying, 'I will build you a house.' Therefore, your servant has found in his heart to pray this prayer to you. 28 And now, O Lord GOD, you are that God, and your words are true, and you have promised this goodness to your servant. 29 And now, let it please you to bless the house of your servant so that it may continue forever before you. For you, O Lord GOD, have spoken it, and with your blessing let the house of your servant be blessed forever."
Matthew Henry Commentary - 2nd Samuel, Chapter 7[➚]
[v.1-2] - Here, David wishes to build a house for the Lord. He perceives that he has rest on all sides, which was the condition for building the Lord's house given to Moses (Deuteronomy 12:10-11). However, this is not God's plan. Soon, David will sin greatly before the Lord (2nd Samuel, ch. 11) and the judgment upon him will be that the sword would never depart from his house (2nd Samuel 12:10), meaning that he will no longer have rest on all sides. Later on in this chapter, God tells David that his son will be the one to build His house (verse 13). Presently, this son is Solomon (See the comment for 1st Kings 5:4); however, God's plan ultimately lies in His Son, Jesus Christ, the Son of David (Luke 1:32-33), as the King Eternal whose throne will be forever established. Furthermore, Solomon did build the house of the Lord, but it eventually was destroyed by the order of Nebuchadnezzar, as told in Jeremiah, ch. 52; however, Christ built a greater temple not built with hands which would then be called The Body of Christ, or the Church (John 2:21; 1st Corinthians, ch. 12).
[v.8] - Reference, 1st Samuel 16:11-13.
[v.11] - "the time that I commanded judges to be over my people" - Reference, Judges 2:16.
[v.12] - "I will set up your seed after you" - The descendant of David which is mentioned here is Solomon. Reference, 1st Kings 2:45-46.
[v.13a] - "He shall build a house for my name" - Reference, 1st Kings 5:5, 8:19; 1st Chronicles 28:6.
[v.13b] - "I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever" - Reference, 1st Kings 2:4, 45; 1st Chronicles 22:10.
[v.14a] - Quoted in Hebrews 1:5.
[v.14b] - Those whom the Lord loves, He chastens. Reference, Revelation 3:19. See also, Psalm 94:12; Proverbs 3:11-12.
[v.15] - "as I took it from Saul" - Reference, 1st Samuel 16:14.
[v.16] - "Your throne shall be established forever" - Christ is the only one who will hold the throne forever. See the comment for 1st Samuel 16:1.