The First Book of Samuel

Chapter 1

Elkanah, a Levite, having two wives, worships yearly at Shiloh, 1-3. He cherishes Hannah, though barren and provoked by Peninnah, 4-8. Hannah in grief prays for a child, 9-11. Eli at first rebukes her, but afterward blesses her, 12-18. Hannah, having given birth to Samuel, stays at home until he is weaned, 19-23. She presents him to the Lord according to her vow, 24-28.

1 Now there was a certain man of Ramathaim-zophim, of mount Ephraim, and his name was Elkanah, the son of Jeroham, the son of Elihu, the son of Tohu, the son of Zuph, an Ephrathite. 2 And he had two wives: the name of one was Hannah and the name of the other Peninnah. And Peninnah had children, but Hannah had no children.

3 And this man went up from his city yearly to worship and to sacrifice to the LORD of hosts in Shiloh. And the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, the priests of the LORD, were there. 4 And when the time was that Elkanah offered, he gave portions to Peninnah his wife and to all her sons and her daughters. 5 But to Hannah he gave a worthy portion, for he loved Hannah, but the LORD had rendered her barren. 6 And her adversary also provoked her greatly to make her fret, because the LORD had made her barren. 7 And so it happened year by year. When she went up to the house of the LORD, Peninnah provoked her; therefore, she wept and did not eat. 8 Then Elkanah her husband said to her, "Hannah, why do you weep? And why do you not eat? And why is your heart grieved? Am I not better to you than ten sons?"

9 So Hannah rose after they had eaten in Shiloh and after they had drank. (Now Eli the priest sat upon a seat by a post of the temple of the LORD.) 10 And she was in bitterness of soul and prayed to the LORD and wept bitterly. 11 And she vowed a vow and said, "O LORD of hosts, if you will indeed look on the affliction of your servant and remember me and not forget your servant, but will give to your servant a male child, then I will give him to the LORD all the days of his life, and there shall no razor come upon his head."

12 And it came to pass, as she continued praying before the LORD, that Eli observed her mouth. 13 Now Hannah spoke in her heart. Only her lips moved, but her voice was not heard. Therefore, Eli thought she had been drunken. 14 And Eli said to her, "How long will you be drunken? Put away your wine from you." 15 And Hannah answered and said, "No, my lord, I am a woman of a sorrowful spirit. I have drank neither wine or strong drink, but have poured out my soul before the LORD. 16 Do not count your servant for a daughter of Belial. For out of the abundance of my complaint and grief I have spoken until now." 17 Then Eli answered and said, "Go in peace. And may the God of Israel grant you your petition that you have asked of him." 18 And she said, "Let your servant find grace in your sight." So the woman went her way and ate, and her countenance was no longer sad.

19 And they rose early in the morning, worshiped before the LORD, and returned and came to their house in Ramah. And Elkanah knew Hannah his wife, and the LORD remembered her. 20 Therefore, it came to pass, when the time had arrived after Hannah had conceived, that she bore a son and called his name Samuel, saying, "Because I have asked him of the LORD."

21 And the man Elkanah, and all his house, went up to offer to the LORD the yearly sacrifice and his vow. 22 But Hannah did not go up, for she said to her husband, "I will not go up until the child is weaned, and then I will bring him so that he may appear before the LORD and abide there forever." 23 And Elkanah her husband said to her, "Do what seems good to you. Stay until you have weaned him. Only may the LORD establish his word." So the woman stayed and nursed her son until she weaned him. 24 And when she had weaned him, she took him up with her, with three bulls, one ephah of flour, and a bottle of wine, and brought him to the house of the LORD in Shiloh. And the child was young. 25 And they slew a bull and brought the child to Eli. 26 And she said, "O my lord, as your soul lives, my lord, I am the woman who stood by you here praying to the LORD. 27 For this child I prayed, and the LORD has given me my petition which I asked of him. 28 Therefore, I have also lent him to the LORD. As long as he lives he shall be lent to the LORD." And he worshiped the LORD there.


Matthew Henry Commentary - 1st Samuel, Chapter 1[➚]


[v.6] - "her adversary" - Hannah's adversary was Peninnah. See, verse 7.

[v.26] - Reference, verse 10.