Saul's overthrow and death, 1-7. The Philistines triumph over Saul, 8-10. The kindness of Jabesh-gilead toward Saul and his sons, 11, 12. Saul's sin, for which the kingdom was translated from him to David, 13, 14.
1 Now the Philistines fought against Israel, and the men of Israel fled from before the Philistines and fell down slain on mount Gilboa. 2 And the Philistines followed hard after Saul and after his sons. And the Philistines slew Jonathan, Abinadab, and Malchi-shua, the sons of Saul. 3 And the battle prevailed against Saul, and the archers hit him, and he was wounded by the archers. 4 Then Saul said to his armor-bearer, "Draw your sword and thrust me through with it, lest these uncircumcised come and abuse me." But his armor-bearer would not, for he was greatly afraid. So Saul took a sword and fell upon it. 5 And when his armor-bearer saw that Saul was dead, he fell likewise on the sword and died. 6 So Saul died, and his three sons and all his house died together.
7 And when all the men of Israel who were in the valley saw that they fled and that Saul and his sons were dead, they forsook their cities and fled. And the Philistines came and dwelt in them.
8 And it came to pass on the next day when the Philistines came to strip the slain, that they found Saul and his sons fallen on mount Gilboa. 9 And when they had stripped him, they took his head and his armor and sent into the land of the Philistines around to carry tidings to their idols and to the people. 10 And they put his armor in the house of their gods and fastened his head in the temple of Dagon.
11 And when all Jabesh-gilead heard all that the Philistines had done to Saul, 12 They arose—all the valiant men—and took away the body of Saul and the bodies of his sons, brought them to Jabesh, buried their bones under the oak in Jabesh, and fasted seven days.
13 So Saul died for his transgression which he committed against the LORD, even against the word of the LORD, which he did not keep, and also for asking counsel of one who had a familiar spirit to inquire of it, 14 And did not inquire of the LORD. Therefore, he slew him and turned the kingdom to David the son of Jesse.
Matthew Henry Commentary - 1st Chronicles, Chapter 10[➚]